Associate Professor in the Faculty of Environmental Studies at York University, Toronto, where she teaches and advises in the areas of global environmental politics and critical development studies. Her research focuses on the political economy and political ecology of oil, gas and other extractives, centering on their spatial and social relations with historical and contemporary colonialism. A central stream of her work concerns the merging of industrial security and community ‘development’ interventions expressed in contemporary private aid programs and corporate social practice. Recently she has examined transparency discourse in the extractive sector as a manifestation of this trend. Another area of research concerns the relationship between popular resistance to extraction, risk analysis as carried out by global financial institutions, and the spatial reorganization of energy and extractive infrastructure. The majority of her field research has been conducted in Nigeria, Mexico, and Canada and more recently at the International Seabed Authority.